Unlike in critical constructivist writings, however, this merely demonstrates why the relationship was so distant. This chapter sets out the theoretical approach, namely critical constructivism grounded in poststructuralism, and the most important concepts, including policy discourses, the notion of security, the concepts of Self and Other, and articulation and interpellation.
First, I, thus, explain what critical constructivism and poststructuralism entail and how these approaches reveal how objects are discursively constructed by denaturalizing, defamiliarizing, and making strange common sense understandings. This is followed by a discussion about what policy discourses are and how they can be contrasted with traditional approaches. Within the policy discourse, what is regarded as a security issue depends on policy discourse: security issues are socially constructed. Also, subject-positions depend on the policy discourse as they are not homogenous or stable, and they are relational to other subject-positions.
In order to trace the constructions of the Self and the Other within the US policy discourse underlying US security policies toward India, I make use of the analytical concepts: articulation and interpellation. I show that the struggle over discourse takes place through articulations of meanings followed by the interpellation of the subject into this discourse.
All in all, this should make clear the theoretical approach and main concepts. In this chapter, I introduce the topic by showing that US-India relations could be characterized as estranged and were marked by dramatic oscillations. As the chapter will demonstrate, the US security policies toward India were often tied to the US containment policy—they were constructed as more important—which limited other policy options toward India within the discourse.
During these five time periods, various meanings were attached to the USA and India. Several themes became particularly salient: those about development, non-alignment, democracy, and instability were articulated throughout these periods and after the Cold War.
They re-emerged in different forms and at different instances. This chapter highlights that there has been a continuous interest in India since the second Clinton administration. However, there is often a focus on a specific event, such as the nuclear test in , or President Clinton as an explanatory variable, instead of changing discourses underlying these policy changes. When India considers alignment, one of the factors it assesses is the impact on its autonomy.
For its part, as Delhi tries to maintain one partnership, it will have to be careful not to damage another — one that is arguably even more critical for its interests in the Indo-Pacific and beyond. Furthermore, it will need to recognize that Russian actions make it harder for the United States and other Western countries to improve their relationships with Moscow — a rapprochement India desires in the hope that it might prevent Russia from moving even closer to China. The Beijing-Moscow dynamic, in turn, should make Delhi ask some serious questions about future Russian reliability.
For India, Russia remained a crucial source of military equipment and spare parts. It was also willing to co-produce with Indian companies — significant for a country that was seeking to enhance its indigenous defense manufacturing capability. And Russia gave India access to defense technology that few others were willing to share.
In the energy sphere, Russia built nuclear reactors in India and offered oil, gas, and opportunities for investment. Regionally, the two shared an opposition to Taliban rule in Afghanistan. And as India looked east, it saw Russia as an important part of its strategy to balance China. Globally, Moscow was seen as an ally in the United Nations particularly in the Security Council, where it wielded a veto and in other international groupings sponsoring , for example, Indian membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
Thus, when the results of the U. This could ease a longstanding irritant in the Delhi-Washington relationship and potentially limit the deepening Russian partnership with China. But reports that Moscow had interfered in the elections put paid to any broad U. India, on the other hand, has seen Russia as part of the solution to its China problem. For Delhi, a Russia that treats China as a rival helps shape the regional balance of power in a way that could keep Beijing from dominating.
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In its experience, when China and Russia have been distant, India has benefited. On the other hand, when Beijing and Moscow have been close — as they were during the initial years of the Cold War — it has caused complications for India. Indians see maintaining this approach as especially crucial in light of greater uncertainty about U.
There has been increased bilateral engagement, including the Modi-Putin summit in Sochi in May and three trips by the Indian foreign minister to Russia in less than a year. India is one of the largest importers of defense equipment as well as of oil and gas. And Russia needs markets. In October , the two countries signed agreements for India to purchase the S system and stealth frigates, and for the co-production of KaT helicopters. They also pledged to move forward with co-development of a fifth-generation fighter aircraft.
India believes the new systems will enhance its air defense capability against China and Pakistan. Beyond the diplomatic repercussions, in the longer term they worry, as House Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. But for Delhi, a bird in hand is worth two in the bush. The two countries have dodged a bullet for now, with Congress giving the president authority to waive the CAATSA sanctions if certain conditions are met. The waiver is approved following intense diplomatic efforts by the Bush administration, dating back to when Washington and New Delhi signed the Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative.
Ahead of the NSG negotiations, Secretary Rice lobbies foreign counterparts to support the waiver, making more than two dozen phone calls. Chandrayaan-1 becomes the first Indian spacecraft to land on the moon. The achievement is one of many resulting from ongoing U. More than three hundred citizens die in the three-day conflagration, including six Americans. Despite its symbolic importance, the trip fails to yield any significant breakthroughs in the bilateral relationship.
The ministerial-level meetings kick off an effort to institutionalize deeper bilateral relations on economic and financial sector issues. The United States and India formally convene the first U.
History of Indian foreign relations - Wikipedia
However, trade concerns around access to Indian markets and issues surrounding civil nuclear cooperation cloud the talks. The agreement is designed to fulfill one of the pillars of the U. The trip marks the first such visit since former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates met with Indian counterparts in January The trip, which focuses on security, trade, immigration reform, and the civilian nuclear deal, marks the third meeting between Singh and Obama in four years.
It comes amid a backdrop of domestic political issues in Delhi, a troubled Indian economy, and a government shutdown crippling Washington. The U.
The announcement comes amid the run-up to high-profile national elections. President Barack Obama congratulates Modi and invites him to the White House, reversing an earlier visa ban. Modi had been barred from entering the country over U. Narendra Modi makes his first visit as prime minister to the United States, aiming to attract investment and firm up the U. The president heralds the relationship between the world's two largest democracies, saying, " America can be India's best partner.
India in a New World of Great Power Tensions
Six months later, U. An expansion of the ten-year defense agreement renewed in , the designation, which became law in August , means that India will enjoy some of the benefits of being a U. Two months later, the United States and India sign an agreement on deeper military cooperation after nearly a decade of negotiations. One of the men, Srinivas Kuchibhotla, dies, and his friend, Alok Madasani, and the bystander are injured.
- India in a New World of Great Power Tensions.
- The Genius in All of Us: Why Everything Youve Been Told About Genetics, Talent, and IQ Is Wrong.
- Human Interaction with Machines: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop Held at the Shanghai Jiaotong University, March 15-16, 2005;
- The Evolving India-U.S. Strategic Relationship: A Compendium of Articles and Analyses.
- Between a Cold War Ally and an Indo-Pacific Partner: India's U.S.-Russia Balancing Act.
- Resources and Strategy.
- American Civil War Reference Library;
India sends nearly one-fifth of the foreign students studying in the United States and more than three-quarters of the highly skilled workers approved for H-1B visas [PDF], but the racist attack sparks concern among Indians that the United States is not safe for them. Increasing anti-immigrant rhetoric causes some prospective applicants to rethink their plans. President Donald J.
Changing US Foreign Policy toward India
The agreement had been under negotiation for nearly a decade. Weeks later, India slaps tariffs on twenty-eight U. New Delhi had drafted the retaliatory tariffs earlier but held off on implementing them amid trade talks. Skip to main content. Close August 15, India Declares Independence.
February 10, Martin Luther King Jr. Studies Gandhian Nonviolence. December 9, President Eisenhower Visits India. Universities Support Indian Technological Institute. Agronomist Spurs Food Revolution. India, Pakistan Go to War. January 1, President Carter Visits India. March 10, U. Enacts Nonproliferation Act. October 31, Indira Gandhi Assassinated. December 3, Bhopal Leak. May 20, U. Crisis Mission to Region.
July 24, Economic Reforms. May 11, India Tests Nuclear Devices.